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William Sterling Hebbard
Consummate San Diego Architect
WILLIAM Sterling Hebbard came to San Diego near the end of the 1880 boom decade to design the power plant for the San Diego Cable Company. With the contract for the powerhouse, he became the designated architect for a company run by John Fisher, D.D. Dare and J.W. Collins. He arrived here with many new ideas instilled within him from his college experience at Cornell University and his apprenticeships with noted architects in Chicago and Los Angeles. He stayed in San Diego through periods of prosperity and depression and left a legacy not only to this city but California as well.
Hebbard's early use of sky lighting, abundant windows to admit natural light from the exterior, and sophisticated ventilation systems influenced many other San Diego architects. With his power plant he incorporated mission style elements in his work. He made use of the Shingle Style of architecture in San Diego when most architects were still designing Victorian buildings. He employed stucco, adobe, arched windows and entries, pergolas, columns, wainscoting and beamed ceilings in his buildings between 1890 and 1917. He was the only San Diego architect appointed to the original State Architectural Board by Governor Gage in 1901. A dedicated leader in his field, Hebbard gave much of his time to civic, cultural and professional organizations in the city which he called home for twenty-seven years.
Born in Milford, Michigan on April 16, 1863, Hebbard entered a family that traced its roots back to Governor Bradford and the Puritans of Massachusetts.1 He spent his early years in Michigan, then attended prep school in Rochester, New York. After graduation, he traveled through Europe taking note of its architectural opulence.2 He then attended Cornell University, graduating from its School of Architecture in 1887.3 His professors, Charles Babcock and Charles Osborne left indelible impressions on Hebbard's curious mind. Babcock, the last surviving member of the architectural organization which preceded the A.I.A., specialized in vaulting and ecclesiastical architecture, and had collaborated with Richard Upjohn in New York on a number of churches before coming to Cornell.4 Charles Osborne, a man of a different coat, had studied under Calvert Vaux, noted landscape architect who had worked with Frederick Law Olmstead. He proved innovative in his approach to all aspects of architecture.5
Under these men, Hebbard studied the basic architectural curriculum at Cornell which included courses in Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance and Modern architecture. Lectures on arches, building materials and construction, acoustics, ventilation, strength of materials and the mechanics of trusses fulfilled additional requirements for the B.S. degree. He received high marks in his coursework which immersed him into all facets and types of architecture known up until that time.6
Upon college graduation, Hebbard left New York for employment as a draftsman with the famed firm of Burnham and Root in Chicago.7 He worked at the Rookery, built by Burnham and Root, which exemplified the creativity of this office. The building exhibited a totally American approach to architecture and incorporated metal and masonry in its construction and the use of abundant skylights which covered a two-story lobby. It featured Root's innovative approach to architecture and lent further credence to his reputation as a man "too original in his own artistic conceptions to form a style based on that of any other architect." Hebbard absorbed Root's ideas and ideology and pursued his search for the American architectural essence. Root influenced Hebbard greatly with his varied eclectic building designs and his early focus on the Shingle Style of architecture. Hebbard learned from Burnham and Root the basic elements of the Chicago Style of architecture, exemplified best in the firm's Monadnock Building which featured the use of abundant bay windows and sixteen stories of masonry bearing walls with innovative facade designs.8
Filled with Chicago's ideas, Hebbard left that city for Los Angeles in 1888 where he worked as a draftsman for Curlett, Eisen and Cuthbertson.9 He contributed to the Los Angeles County Courthouse, the major project of this firm during that time, which incorporated modern English Gothic and Richardsonian Romanesque features. A slate roof covered the structure which was built of marble, granite, brownstone and sandstone.10 Work with this firm proved sporadic, so William Cuthbertson often journeyed to the decaying missions in the area to sketch them and develop a sense of early California architecture.11 Hebbard internalized Cuthbertson's feelings about the importance of the mission style of architecture in this state. He would use the style in his architecture in San Diego in later years.
Probably through a connection with Frank Van Vleck, a former professor of engineering at Cornell, who built the cable road in Los Angeles and engineered the cable road in San Diego, Hebbard received employment as a bona fide architect to build the powerhouse for this system. Amidst much fanfare, the project was completed on June 7, 1890. Hebbard's power plant featured a structure built of brick with a pagoda-style hip roof, many arched windows and an arched entry, reflective of the mission' style of architecture.12
With the completion of the powerhouse, Hebbard moved his residence to San Diego and set up his office in Suite 20 of the Kuhn Building on Fourth Street.13 He rapidly prepared drawings for other structures connected with the cable railway. He designed the Pavilion located at the end of the cable road on the bluffs overlooking Mission Valley. Made of frame with shingles, it featured porches surrounding the entire structure which provided magnificent views of the old mission and beaches. The slightly upturned roof gave it an Oriental air, so that persons compared it to a Japanese tea house in later years.14
Also in connection with the Cable Railway Company, Hebbard built a three-story frame hotel on Fourth and Redwood for company employees.15 For the president of the company, D.D. Dare, Hebbard built, on Fifth and Juniper, a magnificent three-story Sespe brownstone mansion of Richardsonian Romanesque style, the only residence in Southern California up to that time made of this rich clouded brownstone. Fresco work consisting of 18-inch borders and centerpieces in each room was employed with wainscoting from different wood types in most of the sixteen rooms. Stained glass windows added richness to the parlor, library, dining room and stair-case landing. Towers made up a large part of the third story of this $40,000 structure completed in 1890 and hailed as "one of the most costly in Southern California."16
Hebbard's early work in San Diego reflected the architectural upheaval experienced by many U.S. architects searching for the American essence. Times rapidly changed and so did architectural styles. No longer could a single format or style for commercial or residential structures be established. Hebbard had been influenced by imaginative men like Charles Osborne at Cornell, John Root in Chicago and William Cuthbertson in Los Angeles. He knew every architectural style, but saw the coming trend: that no one could persevere for long using only one design. Eclecticism or just downright innovative forms could keep an architect employed. His power plant reflected an early mission style feeling because of its simple design and arched windows and entry. His Pavilion was Shingle Style with a Japanese touch, and the Dare mansion was heavy Richardsonian Romanesque. He would continue to modify these basic architectural styles, adding touches of his own as he progressed in his work in San Diego. He used available California materials and kept in mind the heritage of the land where he worked.
Hebbard's work with the Cable Railway Company caught the attention of other prominent San Diegans interested in erecting residences in 1890. His buildings were concentrated in the Florence Heights and University Heights areas, near the cable road. He used Shingle Style architecture, circular porches, arched entries into rooms and three cornered bay windows in his designs. Wainscoting and fresco detail figured prominently in his homes.17
On March 19, 1891, Hebbard became an associate with the Reid Brothers in the First National Bank Building. In May of the same year, Hebbard became the successor to the Reid Brothers' business when they left to establish an architectural firm in San Francisco. With the inheritance of this firm, Hebbard superintended the completion of the Keating residence in San Diego, the K.H. Wade residence in Coronado and the erection of the Fisher Opera House on Fifth Street in San Diego.18
Managing to design a few of his own structures, Hebbard spent most of 1891 completing Reid Brothers projects. He drew plans for the William Burch residence on Eighth and Ash which featured his first use of two building materials on the exterior of a structure. He used brick on the basement and finished the building above with wood. He remodeled the Florence Hotel with the addition of a third story, the remodeling of the front porch, and the installation of an elevator and various interior changes. He also pro-vided extensive alterations to the L.S. McLure residence at 3204 H Street which involved the addition of a second story and interior changes. He rendered alterations to the Marston Store on Fifth and E, which included the addition of a store room and the installation of a plate glass front.19
Work for Hebbard was slow in 1892, but in 1893, in the midst of a worldwide economic depression, he managed to design enough buildings to be able to afford to marry. On September 9th of that year, he took Jessie Miller, the eldest daughter of E.H. Miller, former San Diego County Assessor and Recorder, as his bride in a quiet ceremony in Los Angeles.20
In addition to numerous residences constructed in Florence Heights during 1893, Hebbard also designed the Ramona Town Hall which incorporated the use of two different building materials in its exterior, brick and adobe.21 He drew plans for his first church, the English Lutheran Church on Second Street between A and Ash. This edifice, which resembled a Greek cross in shape, also used two different building materials in its exterior construction, brick up to the stained glass windows, then framed with shingled gables throughout. He ornamented the tower above the arched entry with stone and brick trimmings. This ecclesiastical building incorporating ideas from his mentors, Charles Babcock, the vaulting expert at Cornell, and John Root, who experimented with the Shingle Style in his church work, was heralded as the "most artistically designed church building in this city."22
Business improved in 1894. In fact, Hebbard hired an assistant, George A. Graves, from La Mesa, to help him with his heavy work load.23 A total of ten residences and cottages were designed for prominent San Diegans during this year, including the Jesse Grant residence on Sixth Avenue by the Park. Built in colonial design with multi-paned windows and siding on the exterior, the residence found use as a summer home for Mr. Grant, the son of U.S. Grant, the late president.24 Hebbard also supervised the remodeling of the Captain C.T. Hinde home in Coronado. He basically covered the original structure, designed by the Reid Brothers in 1887, with a new facade which changed the entire look of this building.25
Two businesses designed by Hebbard during this same year, included the F.F. Wright Block on Fifth Street and the Clemons Warehouse on lower Fifth, both constructed of brick.26 This architect also drew plans for the Cabrillo pavilion of frame and canvas, erected on the plaza to temporarily house various shows planned for this annual celebration.27 Hebbard submitted in early 1894 a mission-style architectural design for the California Mid-winter International Fair to be held that same year in San Francisco. Architects throughout the state sent drawings for what was expected to be a sequel to the World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893.28
Hebbard built his second church in 1894, the Christ Episcopal Church in Coronado. Constructed of hand-hewn granite, with stone work done by the San Diego firm of Simpson and Pirie on D Street, this magnificent Romanesque-style structure still stands today and shows no time-worn scars."29
In 1896, in the midst of a slow work year, Hebbard created his first mission-style religious edifice. He built the Unitarian Church on Sixth between B and C Streets which bore a strong resemblance to the old missions of California. He covered the outer church walls with paint which enhanced their appearance. The notable features of the building included the absence of any windows in the auditorium and the plan of ventilation. Light during the day passed through eight skylights, an idea similar to Burnham and Root's usage of skylights in the Rookery in Chicago. At night, three chandeliers holding gas jets illuminated the interior. Gas jets were also used as footlights on the platform when entertainment was presented in the building. Fresh air filtered through a wire screen running around the building near the ground. The ten inch opening admitted air between the center and inner walls to a height of about six feet at which point it entered the room by a crown mold with an inside inclined surface. The air escaped from the room through an aperture nine inches wide at the ridgepole of the roof. Admitted through ninety square feet of space, air escaped through 140 square feet of space. This mode of ventilation completely offset the effects of drafts.30
Sometime during this architecturally inauspicious year, Hebbard invited Irving Gill to join his firm, with offices established in the Grant Block on Fifth Street.31 Hebbard introduced Gill to many architectural styles and elements, including the mission style, the streamlined Shingle Style, the use of arches, the focus on abundant lighting including the use of skylights and multi-paned windows, new modes of building ventilation, the incorporation of two different building materials on the exterior facades of structures, tiled porch entries and roofs, sturdy Chicago-style commercial building designs and much more. Touches reminiscent of old England, classical Rome and Greece often crept into this firm's work, touches introduced by Hebbard because of his travel in Europe and his coursework at Cornell. The partner-ship not only built commercial buildings, but numerous residences, cottages, churches and other structures from 1896 until 1907 when it dissolved.
In 1897, the firm designed the McKenzie, Flint and Winsky Building on Fifth and K, better known today as the Old Spaghetti Factory.32 The biggest project of that year involved the plans for Graham Babcock's new bath house, Los Banos at D and California. Highlighted as a San Diego prototype of the early mission revival style of architecture in California, it incorporated a red tiled roof, two Spanish-style towers above the main entrance with balconies of ornamental Spanish design with square pavilions at each corner. A decorated archway marked the entrance in the center of the main swimming area which was illuminated entirely by skylights. Components of this building such as the skylights and mission style exterior resembled Heb-bard's earlier Unitarian Church.33
Based on ideas from Chicago, 1898 proved to be an effective year for the use of the craftsman Shingle Style of architecture, especially in residences in Coronado. General Churchill's home, constructed originally near the Hotel del Coronado, but later moved, exhibited the Shingle Style in two and one half stories. Lots of windows and a prominent front bay window provided for abundant natural lighting with wainscoting used throughout the interior. The Mary Pratt-Lorini residence on Ynez Place, the Cossitt residence on Flora Avenue and the Frank von Tesmar home on Star Park, all in Coronado, resembled the Churchill home in design. The incorporation of wainscoting, abundant windows and the Shingle Style had been used by Hebbard in other residences. The Ernest White House at 136 Redwood in San Diego, constructed the same year, emphasized similar features.34
The biggest contract offered this firm during 1898 was for the design of the State Normal School on Park and Normal Streets in San Diego. Budgeted for a cost of $100,000, it promised to exceed any other building owned by the state in exterior beauty and interior design. The ideas for this building, borrowed from Burnham and Atwood's Chicago World's Fair Art Building, reflected modifications to that structure based on San Diego's climate and surroundings and the requirements of the Normal School's Board of Directors.
The plans, heavily influenced by Hebbard because of his study of Roman and Greek architecture and his tenure with Burnham and Root, featured a noble edifice severely classic in design. Because of Hebbard's past concentration on abundant natural lighting and ventilation in his buildings, the school was placed on the lot facing south so as to obtain maximum natural lighting from the sun.35
An important civic and architectural contribution of Hebbard involved his work in 1900 with Charles Lummis and the restoration of the Mission San Diego de Alcalá. Lummis in 1895 had organized the Landmarks Club for the purpose of preserving Southern California missions in San Fernando, San Juan Bautista and San Diego. The choice of an architect for this job required that the person be familiar with the mission style of architecture. Hebbard had used this style in earlier buildings and was contracted by the Landmarks Club to repair the mission. He did the job with no remuneration. His work involved strengthening the walls by removing disintegrated pieces of adobe along the bottom and sides and filling the weak portions of the walls with new material and plaster. He protected the gable by covering it with cement. The low remaining walls were preserved with a short tile pent roof placed on top.36
From 1898 until the dissolution of the Hebbard and Gill partnership, various residence designs exhibited half-timbering on the upper stories with a distinct English cottage effect. As Hebbard had done before, two distinct types of building materials covered the exteriors of these structures and a concentration on the abundance of multi-paned windows was featured. Extensive woodwork covered the interiors. The Stephens-Terry home at 711 A in Coronado, the Waldo Waterman cottage on Hawthorne in San Diego, and the Richards-Dupee mansion on Ocean in Coronado all exhibit this type of ar-chitecture.37
Three distinctively different churches were planned by this firm during the early part of the nineteenth century. The El Cajon Presbyterian Church, erected in 1903, exhibited a simple Shingle Style structure with a shake shingle roof. It incorporated many windows for abundant interior lighting, the use of arches in the plain plastered interior, and except for the presence of a short bell tower, resembled a simple residence in shape and appearance.38
The Church of Christ Scientist at Third and Ash in San Diego, built in 1906, showed a totally innovative approach to the ecclesiastical architecture. Featuring a hint of old England with a heavy influence of Spanish mission revival style, the structure emphasized low sweeping gables and clinker brick paneled sides between the red brick buttresses of the outside walls. Glass paneled doors opened into a half-timbered auditorium with the over-crossing of braces and beams securely drawn together by iron bolts. All the woodwork was flush with golden brown plastered walls.39
The third church, the First Methodist at Ninth and C, also erected in 1906, displayed a style vastly different from anything this firm had done or would do again. It embodied a modern approach to the Gothic style of architecture featuring buttressed walls with a foundation constructed of Santee granite up to the window sills, cherry red brick above the window sills, with rich stained glass windows prominent throughout. The central portion of the church rose two stories in height with lighting enhanced by a large skylight overhead, Oregon pine woodwork adorned the interior with walls tinted in bronze and golden russet tones. As there were no chandeliers, light either entered through the clear windows on the south and west, the skylights, or through electric lights concealed along the balcony or the rims of beams underneath.40
Starting in 1902, Hebbard and Gill erected the first of many modest cottages in the Florence Heights and University Heights areas. The Johnson Puterbaugh cottage at 2970 Quince Street was a prototype of these one to one and one-half storied buildings which exhibited exteriors covered with shingles and featuring lots of multi-paned windows to admit abundant light to all rooms. The projecting eaves sheltered carved beams underneath.41
Also early in the twentieth century, this firm began utilizing arches and solid stucco finish in the exteriors of their homes. They reflected the quiet simplicity of the California mission style. Buildings constructed in 1905 and 1906 emphasized simple two-story structures with wing projections, many multi paned windows and arched entries. Pergolas, terraces, roof gardens, sleeping porches and lots of plants were frequent additions. The firm's work seemed to bring nature into their dwellings. Thin wall construction was apparent in many of their buildings. In addition, these structures featured low-pitched roofs and interiors that contained slab doors, flush detailing, brass door and window hinges, and heavy columns to support porches, terraces and entries.
The Katherine Teats, Alice Lee and Mary Cossitt houses on Seventh Street near Upas stylized open planning, multi-projecting wings, arched alcoves and entries. The Lee and Treats cottages, connected by long pergolas, included slab doors, flush detailing and brass door and window hinges as integral parts of their interiors. Will Hebbard's own home built in 1905 at Third and Olive featured a stucco exterior with a heavy timber cornice, an open terrace supported by heavy cement columns, a brick tiled roof and a conservatory. An arched entry led into the living room of his home.42
Commercial and apartment buildings reflected these new innovations as well as added others. The Crane Brothers Hotel, built in 1907 on Fifth Avenue between B and C Streets displayed a three-story structure with the first floor devoted to a restaurant and kitchen which concentrated on sanitation. Both the floor and wainscoting, constructed of cement, allowed the interior to be flushed with a hose, thus removing all danger of infectious vermin. The kitchen contained steam tables and up-to-date appliances with lighting and ventilation accomplished by means of a skylight in a central court. A large inner court ran down to the second story, reminiscent of the Rookery in Chicago where Hebbard first worked as a draftsman. A palm garden on the floor space in the court over the restaurant brought nature and greenery into the building design. The exterior of the building, constructed of cream pressed brick, displayed quoins and arches of dark buff bricks.43
The Edwin Wells Apartment House on Eleventh, also constructed in 1907, exhibited a two-story building with five large, airy rooms on each floor. Three-inch walls enclosed the modern, sanitary dwelling built for strength and compactness. Flush with the plaster, the interior finish eliminated the interstices that attract insects.44
During 1906, Frank Mead joined the firm of Hebbard and Gill. Harry Vaughn gained employment as a draftsman that same year. In June of 1907, after eleven successful years together, the partnership of W.S. Hebbard and I.J. Gill dissolved, with Gill and Mead leaving the practice and setting up offices in other rooms of the Grant Block, and Hebbard, with draftsman Vaughn retaining the offices of the firm.45
Hebbard practiced architecture independently in the Grant Block from 1907 until 1917. Harry Vaughn remained as Hebbard's draftsman until 1916 when he left to work for Carleton M. Winslow, Sr.46
Hebbard employed many of the ideas previously used in his building designs such as multi-paned and tiered windows, exterior finishes which featured two different building substances, pergolas, porches and terraces, stucco, half-timbering, wainscoting and beamed ceilings, wide eaves, heavy timbered cornices, curved roof beams and brackets, and a concentration on bringing nature into his work. His building styles varied and sometimes bordered on the eclectic. He did not carry a single style of architecture into all of his creations. His architecture changed with the times, the purpose and his clients. He was always open to new ideas and innovations in his work.
St. Paul's Rectory built in 1908 at Fourth and Nutmeg, featured two stories with an attic constructed of brick up to the bottom of the first story windows, then stucco with half-timbering up through the second story. The wide front porch, made of brick, was covered with a rounded wooden overhang. Hebbard planned for sunny exposures through multi-paned windows in the living and sleeping rooms. The downstairs rooms contained beam ceilings and wainscoting. Other additions included a fireplace set in an inglenook, a built-in buffet in the dining room, a private porch off the rector's study with a special entry and a second story balcony opening from one of five bedrooms providing an outdoor sleeping room if desired.47
The Charles Fox residence, built in 1908 at 3100 Brant Street, also exhibited two stories and an attic and basement. The exterior was covered entirely with cement stucco. The interior rooms displayed paneling with stained pine and hardwood floors. The house incorporated many windows with small panes at the top evolving into large single glass sections which covered two thirds of the window. The broad roof featured wide eaves, a heavy wooden cornice and carved projecting wood beams. Two heavy cement columns supported the roof over the wide terrace leading into the main entry. An abundance of plants surrounded the exterior of the residence enhancing its beauty. A spacious conservatory added a feeling of warmth to the first level.48
The H.B. Hakes home at 611 A in Coronado had similar characteristics to the Fox residence and St. Paul's rectory. It was constructed of clinker brick up to the level of the first floor window sills; then stucco and modified Tudor half-timbering for the upper portion of the structure. The interior beam ceilings and wainscoting were created from redwood, as were the staircases, which included a hidden stairway leading to the basement. The main entrance, reached through a broad terrace constructed of cement, was covered with a pergola. The terrace ran the entire width of the east side of the house from which an excellent view of the bay and mountains was obtained. The windows and beamed roof were similar to those of the Fox home.
The Harry Gregg residence on Front and Thorn displayed an innovative approach to architecture, resembling some of the earlier Hebbard and Gill experimental stucco forms. It had a flat roof and plastered exterior. The en-trance extended through a pergola-covered terrace. The two-story structure had single-storied wings on either side. The living room comprised the central portion of the house and opened to a rear court through French windows. The west upper wing contained a roof garden. Notable features of this residence included beam ceilings within the home, a buffet in the dining room, and the kitchen, created as a "model of convenience," contained buffet cupboards and a stove hood to carry off all fumes of cooking.50
The E.J. Swayne residence on Second and Nutmeg exhibited a conglomerate of architectural forms. The building, constructed in 1911, had a colonial air, featuring the use of brick up to the second story with stucco continuing up to the roof. Green tinted half-timbering covered gables and dormer windows. Unique details included a sleeping porch, a second floor piazza, and brass hinged multi-paned windows of heavy plate glass with screens of Stork patent variety which slipped up and down, balanced by weights and removable from sight when windows were closed. Lots of closet space included cedar wood-work and ceiling ventilators. The interior wainscoting utilized Hanford cedar. The living room exhibited the first onyx mantel and fireplace in a San Diego residence. The library fireplace, equipped with a patented stove, heated an upstairs bedroom as well as the library. The house was planned with a hot air system of heating with the furnace in the basement.51
In 1913, Hebbard designed two elegant Mediterranean-style residences for Mrs. H.L. Sefton and her son, J.W. Sefton, in Point Loma. Arranged on a fifteen-acre tract, the structures featured massive buildings made of stucco with tiled roofs. Both residences contained many multi-paned windows, wide expansive gardens, balconies at upstairs windows, porches, and in Mrs. Sefton's residence, an overhang above her entry terrace supported by simple stucco columns.52
The Baker-Fitch residence on Ocean Boulevard in Coronado presented another notable creation of this architect. Constructed in 1915, this home resembled a stunning English country cottage. A corridor connected the six-teen rooms of the main residence with an auxiliary structure. The principal dwelling also featured two stories, an attic and a basement. The first story was of brick and the second was covered with brown shingles. Green shingles capped the gabled roof. Each upstairs guest room had a balcony. All rooms featured telephone connections and every main room faced the ocean. Seven furnaces were installed in the basement to heat the building.53
In addition to mansions, Hebbard also created moderately-priced homes and cottages. The F.H. Blankenburg residence built in 1908 on Eighth near Pennsylvania featured a modest one-and-one-half storied house made of frame with exterior broad eaves. Wide carved brackets and several wide windows complemented the design. Stained pine wainscoting covered the interior.54
Several small Ocean Beach Park cottages were planned by Hebbard in 1909 such as the George L. Birney, J.B. McKie, M. Hall, and C.W. Fox cottages. All incorporated single stories, the exterior use of stucco, and had abundant multi-paned windows to admit maximum light.55
Hebbard designed the A.T. Crane flat building in 1911 on the west side of Fifth near Upas. Built of stucco with a wide overhanging roof supported by heavy timbered brackets, the structure displayed a cornice also of heavy timber material. The building consisted of two five-room flats, one on each of the two floors. Each had a separate entrance from a recessed porch with concrete floors and steps. Tile fireplaces graced the living rooms, and the dining rooms featured wainscoting with plate rails and buffets. Each unit had a sleeping porch with a reversible wall bed constructed in such a way that it could be used either in the chamber or on the porch.56
Constructed in 1913, the only remaining hotel of Hebbard's design in San Diego, the Maryland Hotel, on F, Sixth and Seventh Streets, emphasized a six-storied structure called "one of the most modernly equipped in San Diego." It was the only hotel in San Diego to have connecting baths with all 295 rooms, telephones and clothes closets. Its exterior construction of steel and brick was finished with Tracy Tapestry brick set in wide recessed joints with trimming of ornamental stone. Each floor contained a number of individual balconies. The building, heated with steam throughout, was cleaned by a built-in vacuum system.57
Hebbard's churches during this time period reflected Spanish Renaissance design. In 1910, he designed two religious structures, the Logan Heights Congregational Church on Sampson and Kearney, and the new Unitarian Church on Sixth and Beech.
The Congregational Church featured a Spanish Renaissance style mixed with the simplicity of the Mission Revival style embodying stucco and rough plaster on its exterior. A wide cement walk led to the main entrance. The building, two stories in height, contained a basement in the rear. The en-trance, comprised of a broad stairway through three archways, led into an open vestibule.58
The Unitarian Church, a prime example of Spanish Renaissance architecture, was two stories in height with a square tower on the southwest corner. Cement stucco on metal lath covered the exterior. A red tiled roof covered the church, and the main entrance featured an arched opening into a court with a fountain. Large sliding doors moved easily between the auditorium and Sunday school so the two rooms could be joined for a combined seating capacity of 1000.59
In 1912, Hebbard and Carleton M. Winslow, Sr., designed the All Saints Episcopal Church on Sixth and Pennsylvania. The church displayed an exterior also of Mission Revival and Spanish Renaissance design. The original chapel, moved to the southeast corner of the grounds, gained connection to the new structure by an arcade enclosing a garden with a churchyard cross in the middle. The nave or auditorium seated up to 500. The position of the pulpit, high on the north wall of the nave, separate from the choir, imitated the mission church pulpit arrangement.60
Hebbard and Winslow collaborated again in 1916 to design the University Club headquarters on Seventh between A and Ash. The four-storied structure, Spanish Renaissance in style, had a plain stucco exterior, relieved on the first floor by Spanish rejas or grilles, and on the second floor by a wide balcony upheld by cement pillars. The interior featured plain plaster walls and arched room entries.61
Commercial buildings designed by Hebbard often embodied neo-classical styles. Built of reinforced concrete in 1910, the Union Title and Trust Company on Second between C and D Streets, incorporated two Doric columns on either side of the front entrance. The two-storied ornate building exhibited a marble tiled first floor.62
Hebbard also planned the Southern Title Building on Third Street next to the Union Building in 1913. Built also of reinforced concrete, this six-storied structure was not as ornate as the Union Title building. It displayed two plain columns at the entry level and five columns on the sixth story with a balcony behind. Marble covered the first floor as it did in the Union Title structure.63
In addition to contributing an enormous number of buildings to San Diego and outlying areas, Hebbard also devoted an incalculable amount of time and energy to the improvement of his profession and the city and state where he lived and worked during this time.
Professional organization involvement consumed much of his time from the turn of the twentieth century up until 1918. Hebbard was appointed one of the ten founding members of the California State Board of Architecture by Governor Gage on May 28, 1901. The only representative from San Diego, his license number A9 indicated that he was the ninth person to be certified as a bona fide architect in California. The Board of Architectural Examiners, created in 1903, of which Hebbard was an integral part from that year until 1919, was divided into northern and southern districts. These areas ad-ministered laws governing the practice of architecture in California and by examination granted licenses to practice the profession in the state. Elected vice-president of the Board in 1916, Hebbard assumed the presidency in 1918.64
Very active with State Board activities and meetings, Hebbard in 1906 traveled to San Francisco f or a State Board meeting to discuss and investigate San Francisco buildings after the earthquake and fire to determine what class of structure best withstood these cataclysmic conditions. When he returned home after assessing the damages, he issued the following statement to the press, "One result of the San Francisco disaster is the demonstration that steel frame buildings, when properly constructed will stand both earth-quakes and fire. This does not mean that all the steel frame buildings in San Francisco withstood the recent fire." He continued by explaining that "in most cases they were surrounded by a furnace of burning wood frame buildings, but that most of them were unaffected by the earthquake and would have escaped the fire if that kind of construction had been general over the city."65
Hebbard lamented the horrible devastation of San Francisco. He described the wreckage of city hall and debated whether its disintegration occurred from faulty construction or because of its location on the fault line. He examined the cracked terra cotta facing and stone work on the Fairmount Hotel on Nob Hill built by the Reid Brothers, but stated the building held firm throughout the disaster because of the steel frame.
Hebbard continued, "Buildings of reinforced concrete have the advantage over those of other forms of construction in case of earthquake and fire. Besides being one solid and almost indestructible mass, the concrete is elastic and does not crack."
This architect felt that San Francisco would benefit by the recent terrible experience and would rebuild more carefully. The State Board meeting during this year issued the first report after city inspection. The members, concerned that a great influx of amateur architects would invade this city from other states to capitalize on the situation, wanted to force all incoming architects to take and pass the California licensing exam if they wanted to practice architecture in this state.66
In 1907, Hebbard attended the annual session of the Northern and Southern District branches of the State Board also held in San Francisco. Hebbard, the only San Diego representative, met with such notable architects as Frederick Roehrig, Octavius Morgan, Sumner Hunt, William Curlett, Albert Pissis, Merritt Reid, James Reid and Bernard Maybeck. Heb-bard and Hunt were the two trustees for the Southern District.67
Hebbard in 1910, attended a joint meeting of the State Board of Architecture and the California chapter of the American Institute of Architects in Pasadena. The members were entertained with an auto ride through the orange groves. Hebbard spoke at this meeting on the "Panama-California Exposition."68
In addition to work with the State Board of Architecture, Hebbard actively participated in the A.I.A. of Southern California as a charter member, president and fellow.69
Will Hebbard, one of the founding members of the San Diego Architectural Association in 1910, became president of this group at its first meeting and remained in that capacity until 1913. This organization sought to promote "good fellowship, artistic, scientific and practical efficiency of the profession and kindred arts." When Hebbard left the presidency, J.B. Lymon, the incoming top officer, praised his involvement with the group. He emphasized that "It is owing to the efforts of Mr. Hebbard that the organization had been placed on a firm foundation. It is now hoped that during the coming years the association will widen its scope to become a potent factor in the up building of this city." The association had grown to twenty-five certified members by 1913.70
Hebbard felt a commitment to the city which he called home for twenty-eight years. He was an early member of the Chamber of Commerce, joining it before the turn of the twentieth century.71 He also served on the Civil Ser-vice Commission from 1915-1916.72
Will Hebbard gave much of his time to social organizations that emphasized association with college graduates. In 1898, he was one of the founding members of the Pan-Hellenic Society of San Diego, comprised of twenty-one members of various Greek college fraternities. Hebbard represented Alpha Delta Phi fraternity. At the group's first banquet on April 13, 1898, at the Brewster Hotel, Hebbard, along with other San Diego notables such as Jesse R. Grant, E.E. Nutt, Dr. Fred Baker, G.H. Hazzard and Harry Morse "spent a delightful evening with reminiscences and songs."73 In addition to the Pan-Hellenic Society, Hebbard maintained a lifelong membership in the Cornell University Club of Southern California.74
In 1907, Hebbard along with Edgar A. Luce and Frank von Tesmar, reorganized the floundering University Club of San Diego. They changed it to an organization to which all male college alumni were eligibile. In 1909, the University Club was formally incorporated as a bona fide organization with Hebbard, Luce, E.L. Hardy, Julius Wangenheim and D.D. Whedon writing the rules and by-laws. In 1911, Hebbard assumed the presidency of this organization.75
That same year, Hebbard formed a committee which included Ernest White, R.C. Allen, Theodore Barnes and others to discuss ideas for the design and erection of permanent club quarters to replace the rented mansion they had occupied since 1909. Their ideas culminated in the building in 1916 of the Spanish Renaissance style clubhouse on Seventh Avenue.76
Hebbard's mastery of his profession, not only through the construction of buildings, but his contributions to the art of architecture as a whole, led him into the United States Army as a consultant for military shipbuilding and design in 1918.77
Hebbard supervised military vessel construction in Vancouver, Washington, as Assistant Superintending Engineer of the Army Transport Service. Records state that Hebbard served also in Chateau Thierry, France; Seattle, Washington; Governors Island, New York and Charleston, West Virginia. February 10, 1922 was the architect's date of discharge.78
After leaving the military, Hebbard resided in Los Angeles and practiced architecture independently in the Hellman Building at 124 Fourth Street in that city until 1930.79 He designed professionál buildings in downtown Los Angeles, the Leland School in San Pedro, the Figueroa Theatre in Los Angeles and numerous residences in Hollywood.80
In 1930, Hebbard had slowed down with his architectural work and civic and professional involvements. He was sixty-seven years of age, and his health and eyesight were Failing. Seeking rest and recuperation as well as the company of his daughter, Mrs. Dorothy Carstarphen, Hebbard journeyed in August of that year to Coronado. The healthful San Diego climate apparently came too late for a man with advanced health problems. Hebbard succumbed to a cardiac arrest at Tent City on Coronado Beach on August 24, 1930.81
Will Hebbard left a legacy, not only to San Diego but to the State of California and the U.S. Government as well. His constant desire to improve his knowledge was reflected not only in his buildings but in his professional and civic contributions. He studied every facet of architecture known in the 1880s, then continued his education with apprenticeships under innovative architects in Chicago and Los Angeles. Hebbard adapted to his California homeland and constantly sought to improve his work and shape it into more modern architectural forms.
He employed the Mission Revival style of architecture in San Diego long before other architects used this style borrowed from the old Franciscan missions. He was a mastermind at creating efficient lighting and ventilation systems in his buildings. He employed beautiful woods in his building interiors through the usage of wainscoting and beam ceiling work. He constantly modernized his work, producing buildings that of ten seemed created before their time. He was one of the founding members of the California State Board of Architecture which sought to improve the practice of architecture within the state and encourage only the best trained architects to work in that field. He gave tirelessly of his art and time to improve his environment. He worked until his life gave out, but his monuments and ideas still linger.
1. Hebbard's birth information is provided in Men of California (Los Angeles: Western Press Reporter, 1926), page 214, and in his Deceased Alumni Records from Cornell University, file #41/2/877.
2. See Men of California, page214, and the American Art Annual, Vol. XXI, (Washington: The American Federation of Arts, 1924), page 221.
3. See Deceased Alumni Records. Cornell University created its School of Architecture in 1870 following M.I.T. which established the first architectural school in the United States in 1868. See William D. Hunt, Jr., Encyclopedia of American Architecture, (New York: McGraw Hill Book Co., 1980), page 156, for further details about American architectural schools. Hebbard was a member of Alpha Delta Phi fraternity and was coxswain of the freshman crew.
4. Charles Babcock (1829-1913) was the last surviving member of the 13 architects who founded the first architectural organization in the United States, the forerunner of the A.I.A. He was born in Ballston Spa, New York, and was educated at Union College in Schenectady, New York, graduating in 1847 with an A.B. degree. He began his study of architecture in New York in 1853, as a student in the office of the noted ecclesiastical architect, Richard Upjohn, and remained five years, marrying Upjohn's daughter and later becoming a partner in the firm of Richard Upjohn and Company. In that association, he collaborated on the plans of a number of churches, notably Christ Church at Ballston Spa, New York, St. James Church at Greenwood, New York, and the rectory of St. Paul's Church at Troy. In 1858, Babcock retired from the practice of architecture and became an Episcopal minister. In 1871, he went to Cornell as Dean and Director of the College of Architecture, as well as Professor of Architecture, and remained in that position until 1897, when he became Professor Emeritus. He designed the Sage Chapel on the Cornell Campus in 1874. See Henry F. and Elsie R. Withey, Biographical Dictionary of American Architects (Deceased), (Los Angeles: New Age Publishing Co., 1956), pages 27-28; and Kermit Parsons, The Cornell Campus, A History of Its Planning and Development, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1968), pages 60-61. Babcock wrote a number of books on architecture and vaulting including A Series Upon Elementary Architecture, (New York, 1877), and Vaulting, (New York, 1884), and several articles on vaulting.
5. Charles Francis Osborne joined the Cornell architectural faculty in 1881. He was a former student of Calvert Vaux, well-known architect and landscape designer. See Parsons, The Cornell Campus..., page 138. He planned Morse Hall on the campus in 1888 which was a massive red brick structure, schoolhouse-like, hip-roofed with dentils extending under the eaves, and his innovative Dairy Building was completed on the Cornell campus in 1893. It was made of stone with delicately arched windows, a tile roof, with dentils extending under the eaves, and a columned, gabled porch which was said to look like the "Grand Entry" of William H. Miller's McGraw- Fiske mansion. See Parsons, The Cornell Campus..., pages 149 and 179.
6. The Registrar's Records, Cornell University, file #36/1/630 lists Hebbard's coursework as well as his marks.
7. Hebbard's employment with Burnham and Root of Chicago is mentioned in Withey, Dictionary of American Architects..., page 275; the American Art Annual, page 221; and Men of California, page 214.
Daniel Hudson Burnham (1846-1912) studied architecture with William LeBaron Jenney in 1868. In 1869, he entered the office of John Val Osdel and Gustave Laudreau. In 1872, he entered the firm of Carter, Drake and Wight whose head designer, Peter Wight, broadened his scope of architecture. He met Root in this office.
John Wellborn Root (1850-1891) attended Oxford College-, City College of New York. As a student he entered the office of James Renwick. He later went to work for Peter Wight in 1871, after the Chicago great fire. In 1873, Burnham and Root formed a partner-ship. Burnham was the office manager and client relations man complementing Root who was the sensitive and imaginative designer. They ultimately established their offices in the Rookery, a building they designed in 1885. Root was compared to Sullivan because of his innovative designs and had looked forward to the World's Fair in Chicago in 1893, but his untimely death in 1891 halted further expression of his designs. For further information about Burnham and Root, see Hunt, Encyclopedia of American Architecture, pages 63-66; Withey, Biographical Dictionary..., pages 97 and 525; and Frederick Koeper, American Architecture, Vol. 2, 1860-1876, Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1983), page 139.
8. More vivid descriptions of the Rookery, Monadnock Building and Root's usage of the Shingle Style of architecture are contained in Koeper, American Architecture..., pages 246-249, and Marcus Whiffen, American Architecture Since 1780, (Cambridge; M.I.T. Press, 1981), pages 139 and 188.
9. Hebbard's employment as a draftsman with this firm is mentioned in American Art Annual, page 221, and the Los Angeles City and County Directory, 1888-1890.
William Curlett (1845-1914) was born in Ireland, studied art and architecture for two years in Manchester, England, spent three years in art school in Belfast. In 1871, he worked for Augustus Laver in San Francisco. He married Celia A. Eisen in 1873. He built residences for L.J. Rose, Ex-Governor Markham, Col. Dan Freeman, Mrs. Mark S. Severance in Los Angeles. He was one of the ten original members, as was Hebbard, of the State Board of Architecture, serving as its president in 1912. He was a fellow of the American Institute of Architects. For further information see A History of California, (Los Angeles: Historic Record Co., 1915), page 363.
Theodore Eisen (1852-1924) was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, came west as a young child and settled in San Francisco. He learned architecture through the offices of leading architects of his day. The Orphan Asylum a( Boyle Heights in Los Angeles was considered his most important work. See Withey, Biographical Dictionary..., pages 194-195, for further details.
William Cuthbertson (1850-1925) was a native of England and came to San Francisco under the administrations of Mayor Phelan and Mayor Schmitz. He maintained a San Francisco residence throughout his working life and was active in San Francisco architecture after the 1906 earthquake and fire. See Withey, Biographical Dictionary..., page 156.
The firm of Curlett, Eisen and Cuthbertson was formed in Los Angeles in the Downey Block in 1887 and lasted until 1890.
10. The firm worked on the Los Angeles County Courthouse during the years 1887-1890. The Los Angeles Times of May 13, 1887, page 8, mentioned this firm as being located in both Los Angeles and San Francisco. The courthouse was built on Fort and New High Streets and was of an English Gothic, Richardsonian Romanesque conglomerate style. There was a tower over the entrance on Fort Street whose top was 176 feet from the ground. A circular tower rising to the cornices at the top adorned the center of the New High Street front. The cost was $210,990. According to Withey, Biographical Dictionary..., page 156, the firm of Curlett, Eisen and Cuthbertson constructed a number of buildings in San Francisco, as well as a three-story brick hotel at Ventura.
11. Cuthbertson was an early proponent of the use of mission style architecture. In 1891, Cuthbertson submitted a plan for the California Building for the World's Fair to be held in Chicago in 1893. His design was a replica of one of California's missions. See Karen Weitz, California's Mission Revival, (Los Angeles: Hennessey & Ingalls, Inc., 1984), pages 25-38.
12. The idea of a cable road for San Diego was originated in May 1889 by George D. Copeland. He had been operating an electric car line up Fourth Street and out to University Avenue. It was his plan to use the electric road franchise for a cable line and with that object in view he solicited subscriptions for stock. He was mildly successful. He soon received a proposition for the purchase of his franchise from D.D. Dare, John C. Fisher, and J.W. Collins. They went to work and got a good subsidy of land and money from people who lived along Sixth out to University Heights. Eastern investors subscribed to stock in this company. Active operations did not begin, however, until Frank Van Vleck arrived in August 1889. Van Vleck, a graduate of Stevens Institute of Technology was a professor of mechanical engineering at Cornell University. He was the chief engineer for the Los Angeles Cable Road completed in 1887 and it was his success there that attracted the attention of San Diegans. See the San Diego Union, June 8, 1890, pages 1-2, for further details. Perhaps Hebbard's work in Los Angeles and his attendance at Cornell linked these two men to the cable road in San Diego. An in-depth report of the cable railway system with photographs was included in Richard V. Dodge, "San Diego's Grip Cars," Dispatcher, Issue 39, May 1962, pages 1-16.
13. William S. Hebbard is listed in the 1890 Los Angeles City and County Directory as residing in Pasadena. He states, however, in a newspaper interview in the San Diego Union, February 23, 1913, page 6, that the Cable Railway Power House was his first work in San Diego which brought him here. It was begun in 1889. Hebbard is mentioned as the Cable Company's architect and hailed as "one of the brainy young men of the institution of which San Diego is now so proud," in the San Diego Union, June 12, 1890, page 8. Hebbard's office in the Kuhn Building is mentioned in the San Diego Union, January 1, 1891, page 9.
14. The Pavilion was to be a "large and striking building and will have strong attractions for (he pleasure seeker" as cited in the San Diego Union, June 12, 1890, page 8. The Pavilion was predicted as the popular place of resort on Admission Day, 1890. The 10 cent fee for refreshments would go for the opera house curtain. Mayor Douglas Gunn presided over festivities. See the San Diego Union, September 9, 1890, page 5, for further details.
15. This hotel was to accommodate employees connected with the powerhouse and cable line. Mrs. Fannie Hinke was the proprietor. See the San Diego Union, July 6, 1890, page 8; the San Diego Union, January 1, 1891, page 9; and the San Diego City and County Directory, 1892-1893, for further details.
16. The material for this residence came from the Sespe quarries in Ventura County. The same stone had been used in the construction of the Bryson-Bonsbrake block in Los Angeles as well as several other business buildings, but in no residence in Los Angeles or San Diego. The color of the stone was rich clouded brown with a little of the reddish tinge common to a great deal of building stone in this part of the country. The main or outside walls ere backed up with brick and the inside walls were frame work. A three foot retaining wall was located in front from the sidewalk up. The stained glass windows were considered exceptional. A window in the parlor represented "The Awakening of Spring" with cupids hovering around a young girl. The staircase landing showed Othello relating his adventures before Desdemona. The upper sashes of the library featured the heads of Shakespeare, Beethoven and Rubens. A stable was also built of the same type of stone. See the San Diego Union, July 11, 1890, page 8; the San Diego Union, November 5,1890, page 5; and also the San Diego Union, January 1, 1891, page 9, for further details.
17. Hebbard incorporated a circular porch in the J.T. Hill residence on University Heights. He rebuilt a house for Mrs. Milton Santee on Eleventh and B which featured a circular porch. Shingle exterior work plus three-cornered bays and arched entries were incorporated in the C.L. Barber residence on Fifth. Wainscoting was employed in the C.L.. Barber residence on Fifth. Wainscoting and ceiling fresco work were used in Mrs. Milton Santee's residence. See the San Diego Union, November 15, 1890, page 5, for further details.
18. Hebbard's involvement with the Reid Brothers is mentioned in the San Diego Union, April 7, 1891, page 6; the San Diego Union, May 3, 1891, page 6; and the San Diego Union, May 5, 1891, page 8. Hebbard's assumption of Reid Brothers projects is discussed in the San Diego Union, January 1, 1892, page 1.
19. The San Diego Union, January 1, 1892, page 12 lists Hebbard's work for the previous year.
20. See the San Diego Union, September 11, 1893, page 5. His residence was listed at 1827 Third in the San Diego City and County Directory, 1893, page 94. Hebbard was 5'5Vz" tall, had gray eyes and balding dark brown hair and moustache when he married. He and Jessie had two children, Dorothy, born July 7, 1894, and William Sterling, Jr., born November 27, 1896.
21. In addition to the Ramona Town Hall, Hebbard also designed the J.W. Jackson residence on Eighth and Ash, the Captain Pringle residence on Upas and the Park, the W.P. Uhlinger residence in Florence Heights, the George L. Fischer cottage on Fourth between Beech and Cedar, the H.E. Doolittle residence at 1741 Front, as well as the J.H. Marshall Mausoleum at Mt. Hope mentioned in the San Diego Union, May 21, 1893, page 3.
22. See the San Diego Union, May 21,1893, page 3; the San Diego Union, July 21, 1893, page 5; and the San Diego Union, August 5, 1893, page 5, for further details of the church including descriptions of the themes of the stained glass windows which cost over $1,000 and were from the Pacific Decorative Company of San Francisco of which Col. Chadbourne was president and P.J. Milton of San Diego was vice-president.
23. See the San Diego Union, November 26, 1894, page 8.
24. See the San Diego Union, April 29, 1894, page 5.
25. The San Diego Union, July 1, 1894, page 8, mentions that W.S. Hebbard commenced extensive additions and alterations to the Hinde residence. The San Diego Union, August 4, 1894, page 8, said that carpenter Charles Houts had commenced work on the Hinde residence on C Avenue, with teams busy hauling sea sand for use around the foundation. The Hinde residence is mentioned with Hebbard as the architect in the San Diego Union, September 3, 1894, page 2. The San Diego Union, January 1, 1896, page 14 states that "construction on the Hinde house began in August 1894 and was finished in June 1895." The Reid Brothers of San Francisco were the architects who designed the original house in 1887 with plans suggested by Mrs. Hinde.
26. The F.F. Wright and Company structure, erected on Fifth near F, was mentioned in the San Diego Union, July 1, 1894, page 8, and the San Diego Union, September 3, 1894, page 2. The Clemons Warehouse which is the Cobb Company today, cost $3,750 to build. See the San Diego Union, April 1, 1894, page 5, and the San Diego Union, September 3, 1894, page 2, for further details.
27. See the San Diego Union, July 29, 1894, page 5. Additional information regarding the Cabrillo Celebrations which started in 1892, is contained in an article by Sally Thornton, "San Diego's First Cabrillo Celebration, 1892," The Journal of San Diego History, Summer 1984, pages 167-180.
28. Impetus for a California Mission Revival came with the planning of the California Mid-winter International Exposition in 1894. Drawings were submitted with designs emphasizing Spanish, Moorish and Mission motifs. See Karen Weitz, California's Mission Revival, pages 51-52.
29. Details on the construction of the Episcopal Church are included in the San Diego Union, July 1, 1894, page 8; the San Diego Union, July 29, 1894, page 5; and the San Diego Union, January 1, 1895, page 5.
30. A vivid description of the lighting in this church which Hebbard based on ideas learned from his experience with Burnham and Root is included in a lengthy article about this edifice in the San Diego Union, October 25, 1896, page 5.
31. This architectural business was listed in the San Diego City and County Directory, 1897. Hebbard's Deceased Alumni Records from Cornell University mention the partnership beginning in 1896.
Irving Gill (1870-1936) was the son of a contractor, born in Syracuse, New York. He apprenticed under E.G. Hall and J. Lyman Silsbee. He worked with Louis Sullivan in Chicago until 1893, where he was a draftsman on the Transportation Building for the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago. See Adolf Placzek, Macmillan Encydopedia of Architects, Vol. 2, (New York: The Free Press, 1982), pages 205-205. Gill came to San Diego because of ill health, then joined in partnership with Joseph Falkenham, a designer of Queen Anne Victorian residences. See Bruce Kamerling, "Irving Gill: The Artist as Architect," Journal of San Diego History, Vol. XXV, Spring 1979, pages 151-170. Gill had an innocence of classicism, because Sullivan preached disrespect for Rome and the Renaissance. He turned faces of young men away from Europe. In addition, Louis Gill stated that his uncle, Irving, did not know one style from another. See manuscript at San Diego Public Library entitled, "Irving Gill," L.A. County Museum of Art Center in La Jolla, 1958.
It seems the record of this partnership has never been fully explored. Most historians have given Gill credit for buildings and innovations that Hebbard created. Katherine Carlin, a member of the Coronado Historical Association, in defense of Will Hebbard in reference to a Richard Daniels article on January 16, 1977, in the San Diego Union, on homes and buildings in Coronado, stated that "Will Hebbard's name was omitted as Irving Gill's senior partner." She stated that Hebbard's late daughter, a Coronado resident and friend of hers, Mrs. Dorothy Carstarphen, said, "I can't help feeling a bit provoked and sad when I see all the glory being given to Irving Gill when it was my father who took Gill into the partnership when a young man, trained him and taught him many things. The buildings designed during that partnership period were the work of Hebbard and Gill, yet Hebbard seems to have been forgotten." See Katherine E. Carlin, "Architect Gill's Partnership Saluted," in the San Diego Union, January 20, 1977. In addition, Samuel Hamill, a San Diego architect, stated, "the record has been faulty in regards to Gill as an outstanding architect. Hebbard, Gill's partner, was a man of terrific distinction and had the guiding hand in regards to architecture created during the Hebbard and Gill partnership." See the manuscript by Bob Wright and Waunita Wills, "Interview with Samuel W. Hamill at 4467 Ampudia Street in San Diego," August 24, 1974, on file at the San Diego History Center.
32. The first mention of the proposed McKenzie, Flint and Winsky building at 5th and K was in the San Diego Union, December 14,1894, page 5. However, construction on the actual building which was to occupy the site did not begin until 1897. See the San Diego Union, July 18, 1897, page 5. The Union article did not mention the architects. However, John Henderson in his A.I.A. Cuide to San Diego, 1977, gives Hebbard and Gill the credit for this structure.
33. For further details of Los Banos, see the San Diego Union, May 9, 1897, page 9. Los Banos was highlighted as "representative of San Diego's schools of modern architecture," in Karen Weitz, California's Mission Revival, pages 70-71.
34. Information on the Churchill home is contained in the San Diego Union, September 14, 1898, page 8. See the Coronado Historical Tour Guide, 1976, for further information about the Pratt-Lorini, Cossitt, and von Tesmar residences. The Ernest and Ileen White residence in San Diego was discussed in a paper presented to the San Diego Historical Sites Board, October 1982 by Dr. Ray Brandes.
35. See the San Diego Union, January 1, 1899, page 2, and January 1, 1900, page 16, for further details. A controversy also exists as to which architect actually designed this building. The blueprints list the firm name of W.S. Hebbard and I.J. Gill. However, Hebbard's obituary in Henry and Elsie Withey, Biographical Dictionary..., page 275, states that Hebbard "independently planned a number of schools of which the State Nor-mal group in San Diego was an outstanding example built between 1896 and 1907." In Men of California, page 214, Hebbard, was credited with the design of the State Normal School. In addition, The Western Architect, Vol. 18, No. 10, October 1912, featured a picture of the State Normal School with W.S. Hebbard listed below the name of the school as the architect. The American Art Annual, 1924, page221, lists the State Normal School as the work of Hebbard. It would seem reasonable that Hebbard would have designed the school considering his college background in classical architecture and also the fact that he had worked for Burnham and Root in Chicago; the World's Fair building there, now the Museum of Science and Industry, bore a strong resemblance to the State Normal School.
36. In 1900, the Landmarks Club of California had contributed $500 toward the work of preserving the Mission San Diego de Alcal'a. The work was done by W.S. Hebbard, according to George White Marston, A Family Chronicle, compiled by Mary Gilman Marston, Vol. II, (The Ward Ritchie Press), page 70. Hebbard, in consultation with architect Arthur B. Benton of Los Angeles, was considered to have "well expended" the monetary contributions. The mission re0storation was to last until funds were available for complete restoration. The donated money only covered the materials and not the work in preserving what remained of the mission. No compensation was paid architects, engineers, or club officials. With reference to the San Diego Mission, Charles Lummis wrote, "Unless it is protected it will not last 10 years, and in five years there won't be enough for tourists to see." See Dudley Gordon, Charles F. Lummis: Crusader in Corduroy, (Los Angeles: Cultural Assets Press, 1972), pages 226-227. This mission restoration movement led by Lummis fostered a resurgence in interest throughout the stale in mission style architecture which lasted up until 1910, when Spanish Renaissance and Spanish Colonial influence crept into California designs.
37. References to these structures are contained in the San Diego Gills, Hillcrest and Uptown, published by S.O.H.O., 1975, pages 4-5, and the Coronado Historical Guide, 1976.
38. See the San Diego Union, December 1, 1902, page 5. Hebbard and Gill were given the contract for this church to replace one that had burned. The seating capacity was set at 200 and when Sunday school doors were opened, 100 more people could be accommodated. The cost was $3,500. See the San Diego Union, November 7, 1902, page 5. Pictures of this church are on file at the El Cajon Historical Society.
39. A vivid description and picture of this building are featured in the San Diego Union, January 1, 1906, page 20.
40. See the San Diego Union. January 1, 1906, page 20.
41. The Johnson Puterbaugh residence is listed in Footbridges to Fortune, published by S.0,H, 0,, l982, page 3, in Kamerling, "Irving Gill...," Another cottage of this type is located and Third and Ivy. W.S. Hebbard is listed as the architect for this building erected in 1903. It is remodeled. See the San Diego Union, February 23, 1903, page 5. Other similar cottages appear in the Florence Heights and University Heights areas.
42. More details of Hebbard's home are included in the San Diego Union, January 1, 1906, page 17.
43. See the San Diego Union, November 14, 1906, page 7, for additional information about the Crane Brothers Hotel.
44. See the San Diego Union, August 28, 1906, page 9, for further details.
45. See the San Diego Union, June 16,1907, page 5 for details of the termination of this partnership.
46. Harry Kenneth Vaughn worked as a draftsman for William S. Hebbard from 1907 to 1916. Inl916, he was employed by Charleton Winslow, Sr., in San Diego. Froml917un-til 1921, Vaughn worked with Winslow in Los Angeles as a draftsman. He became a certified architect in 1922 and opened various private architectural offices in Los Angeles until 1927. From that time until his retirement, he was an employee with the State. He died in San Diego on April 21, 1962. He was a member of the American Institute of Architects. See the San Diego City and County Directories, 1907-1917. See the Los Angeles City Directories, 1917-1927. For his obituary, see the San Diego Union, April 22, 1962, page 24.
47. St. Paul's Rectory cost $6,000 to build. See the San Diego Union, February 3, 1908, page 3, for further details.
48. The Charles Fox residence cost $6,000 to build. The first floor contained a large reception hall, living room, spacious conservatory, dining room and kitchen. The second floor contained five bedrooms and baths. The attic was to be used as a billiard room. See the San Diego Union, March 1, 1908, page 22.
49. The Hakes residence cost $10,000 to build. See the San Diego Union, December 13,1908, page 17, for further details. A description of this residence is contained in the Coronado Historical Tour Guide, 1976.
50. The Harry Gregg residence was a seven room structure with oak floors. The upper portion of this structure contained a billiard room. See the San Diego Union, March 7,1909, page 17.
51. This residence cost $14,000 to build. Swayne supervised the construction of his home. See the San Diego Union, January 1, 1911, page 12.
52. Pictures of these residences with plans of the estates are included in The Architectural Review, Vol. 38, October 1915. Each residence cost $30,000 to build on a 15 acre tract. See the San Diego Union, April 27, 1913, page 15.
53. Baker was a classmate of Hebbard's at Cornell University. He was a Minneapolis and Chicago capitalist. His home cost $50,000 to build and was situated on a 300 x 220 foot lot. It had 16 rooms and an auxiliary structure which provided quarters for the servants and a garage. Baker had built a high brick and concrete wall varying the height from 5 1/2 to 8 feet to insure an ocean view and protect the property from high tides and storms. See the San Diego Union, April 25, 1915, page 9, and Bunnie MacKenzie, "Baker-Finch House," Bridge and Bay, Winter 1980, pages 20-21.
54. This house only cost $3,200 to build. It had its back to a canyon which today overlooks Highway 163. See the San Diego Union, June 28, 1908, page 17.
55. See the San Diego Union, April 22, 1909, page 14, and the San Diego Union, April 25, 1909, page 16.
56. This structure cost $6,000 to build and adjoined the Crane Apartments. See the San Diego Union, December 10, 1911, page 6.
57. The Maryland Hotel was originally the Sefton Hotel built by Joseph Sefton. The construction of this building required the wreckage of the old post office and several frame buildings. Hebbard got the contract for the job but other architects such as F.S. Allen of Pasadena and Irving Gill of San Diego submitted plans. See the San Diego Union, December 3, 1912, page 11. Further details of the Sefton Hotel are contained in the San Diego Union, August 10, 1913, page 100.
58. The Congregational Church cost $10,000. See the San Diego Union, May 29, 1910, page 11.
59. The Unitarian Church cost $10,000. See the San Diego Union, August 28, 1910, page 28.
60. Hebbard was the senior architect involved with this project. See the San Diego Union, February 11, 1912, page 25. Winslow came to California to design buildings for the Panama-California Exposition. His first building was the Administration Building, on the drawing board in 1911, but not constructed until 1912. Hebbard's use of Mission Revival and Spanish Renaissance styles in many of his buildings probably influenced Winslow's fair designs of which the Indian Arts Building, now the House of Charm is a prime example. It strongly resembled the All Saints Episcopal Church and featured a bold, simple Franciscan style with unmatched bell walls instead of towers at the entrance with a long arbor covered by pergolas and uplifted with columns. See Bruce Kamerling, "The Architecture of San Diego's Balboa Park," Apollo, Vol. CXV, No. 244, June 1982.
61. This building was projected to cost between $25,000 and $30,000. Hebbard again was the senior architect on this project. See the San Diego Union, January 1, 1916, page 8.
62. This commercial fireproof building cost $40,000 to construct. See the San Diego Union, June 19, 1910, page 17.
63. This building cost $100,000 in its entirety. It was rumored to have "the only complete loose leaf system of records in the city." A.P. Johnson was the president of the Southern Title Guaranty Company. Records were said to have dated from 1849. See the San Diego Union, January 1, 1913, page 13.
64. Cornell's Deceased Alumni Records reflect this appointment for the Southern District of California as well as mention his reappointment by Governor Pardee on November 26, 1906. Additional information about Hebbard's appointment is included in a letter from Linda Montoya, Project Assistant for the Board of Architectural Examiners, 1021 O Street, Sacramento, California, dated March 7, 1984.
65. Hebbard left San Diego for San Francisco on April 29, 1906, to evaluate structural damage as mentioned in the San Diego Union, April 29, 1906, page 5.
66. Hebbard like most of those who visited San Francisco after the earthquake and fire stated that the devastation was beyond the power of description. Hebbard, in addition to evaluating the damage to the Fairmount Hotel, analyzed the city hall which was very badly wrecked. He was not sure whether this damage came from faulty construction or because it happened to be in the line of the fault. He cited damages in the big post office building and stated the magnificent interior was in a shambles. He said the building was little affected by the fire. He observed that on one side of the post office block, the street had sunk several feet below the curb. Hebbard viewed the St. Francis Hotel, claimed it was more fortunate than most structures, and praised its management for showing the California spirit. While the debris was being cleared away, a sign was erected stating that the hotel would be ready for occupancy on May 1. See the San Diego Union, May 4, 1906, page 7.
67. At this annual meeting the board held its biennial election and re-elected the retiring members as follows: Southern District: John P. Krempel, president; Frederick Roehrig, secretary and treasurer; with Octavius Morgan, Sumner Hunt and William S. Hebbard, additional officers. See Architect and Engineer of California, April 1907, page 87. Also, see Architect and Engineer, May 1908, page 75.
68. In addition to Hebbard's speech, William Curlett of San Francisco, with whom Hebbard had worked in 1888 and 1889, and who was currently the president of the Northern District, spoke on "The State Board of Architecture." See the San Diego Union, April 12, 1910, page 5.
69. See Men of California, page 214, and Deceased Alumni Records from Cornell University.
70. The architects of San Diego met to create a permanent organization and plans were discussed for a probable affiliation with the A.I.A. as a chapter of the national organization. The first meeting was held in the offices of Irving Gill. At this meeting, the following officers were elected: W.S. Hebbard, president; SAGO. Kennedy, vice-president; Irving Gill, secretary; Charles Quayle, treasurer. The members who were present at this meeting in addition to the above-mentioned were: Edward Quayle, Henry Lord Gay, Robert Halley, ]r., Del Harris, G.A. Hanssen, John Stannard, Emmor Weaver, and R. Requa. See the Southwest Contractor and Manufacturer, September 3, 1910, page 26. Further information about this organization is included in the San Diego Union, January 1, 1913, page 3, the San Diego Union, December 25, 1913, page 13, and the Southwest Contractor and Manufacturer, Vol. 8, No. 23, April 13, 1912, page 8.
71. See the San Diego Union, January 1, 1900, page 10.
72. See Men of California, page 214.
73. See the San Diego Union, August 14, 1898, page 2.
74. See Deceased Alumni Records from Cornell University.
75. Hebbard, Luce and von Tesmar were appointed in 1907 to secure the names of those who wished to join a club which combined male members of the old University Club with a group of persons in the San Diego area who belonged to college fraternities with a view toward the formation of an inter-fraternity organization which was later broadened to that of a club to which all college alumni should be eligible. See University Club of San Diego, Membership Roster, 1980-81, Universal Directory Publicity Corporation. The other University Club officers for 1911 included: Dr. H.P. Newman, vice-president; J.M. Ward, secretary; E.L. Hardy, treasurer. Other members of the club included: R.C. Allen, Arthur Marston, L.C. Sherwood, Rev. W.B. Thorp, Julius Wangenheim, Ernest E. White, Austin Fletcher and Capt. A.T. Balentine. See University Club of San Diego, Fourth and A, 1911, page 3.
76. Information about the various University Club houses is found in "University Club: 7th and A: Milestone for Future," written in the San Diego Union, August 8,1976, page B-l, and in the San Diego Union, January 1, 1916, page 8.
77. Hebbard's military service is mentioned in Deceased Alumni Records from Cornell and in Men of California, page 214.
78. See Deceased Alumni Records.
79. See the Los Angeles City and County Directories, 1922-1930.
80. Hebbard designed an eight-story professional building for doctors and dentists on the corner of Sixth and St. Paul Streets in Los Angeles. A vivid description of this structure plus a drawing and floor plan is included in Southwest Builder and Contractor, October 5, 1923, page 39. The Board of Education of Los Angeles appointed Hebbard to design the Leland Avenue School for a cost of $84,000. See the Southwest Builder and Contractor, July 4, 1924, page 50. The Figueroa Theatre on Santa Barbara and Figueroa Streets cost $334,000 to build. There were 1584 seats in the theatre which opened Friday, November 13, 1925. See the Southwest Builder and Contractor, December 11, 1925, pages 43-44. Men of California, page 214, mentions other Los Angeles buildings.
81. This information was provided by Katherine Carlin of Coronado, a close friend of Hebbard's daughter, Dorothy Carstarphen, in a telephone interview on October 20, 1983. Other information relating to Hebbard's death was contained in the San Diego Union, August 25, 1930, page 6, and the Los Angeles Times, August 27, 1930, page 3. Hebbard was survived by his widow, Jessie, in Los Angeles, his son, Sterling, in Beverly Hills, and his daughter, Dorothy of Charleston, South Carolina. Johnson-Saum Mortuary on Fourth and Ash in San Diego conducted his funeral services on August 25, at 3:30 p.m.
PHOTOGRAPHS are all courtesy the San Diego History Center's Title Insurance and Trust Collection.