- Journal of SD History
THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN IN THE CIVIL WAR
Hazen's Civil War Diary
Eli Warnock Hazen's Civil War diary is one of the very few which tell of the action in Arizona, or describe the march of Col. James H. Carleton's "California Column" as it walked east. A few biographical comments provide perspective on this unusual Civil War document.
Hazen was born in New Castle, Lawrence County, Pennsylvania on April 29, 1839. His family was of solid old colonial stock dating as far back as Thomas Dudley, governor of Massachusetts from 1634 to 1650. His grandfather, Nathaniel Hazen, was, a soldier in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. Hazen was one of five brothers all of whom, except one who died in 1851, served in the Union Army in the Civil War.1
Sometime before the Civil War Hazen journeyed to the California gold fields to try his luck, but like so many he apparently had little. When he enlisted in Company E, 1st Regiment of California Volunteer Infantry in August, 1861, Hazen listed his occupation as "carriage trimmer," and his home as Sacramento.2
Company E was almost entirely composed of men enlisted at Sacramento, and was commanded by Capt. Thomas L. Roberts during its entire term of service. At the time Hazen mustered in he was 23 years old, 5 feet 8 inches tall, of medium build, had light colored hair and blue eyes, and was in acceptable health. Although he was a typical California volunteer soldier in most respects, Hazen's rare alertness and literacy which are demonstrated by his diary are uncommon.
Hazen's military service record, like that of Company E, is rather routine. He was never wounded, never cited, and spent only a few days sick in a hospital. Hazen was in the middle of the Battle of Apache Pass, and his description of this, his only real combat experience, is colorful. Although Hazen appears to have been a soldier worthy of consideration for promotion, the composition of Company E changed so little that he remained a private for the full term of his enlistment. He ended his diary at the time Company E became a garrison unit engaged in patrols to suppress hostile Indians.
The marches Hazen describes were all made over the established roads and trails of the period. The lack of any problems or difficulties in making these long marches is a compliment to the well-established genius Col. Carleton had for marching troops through difficult country.
Along with most of Company E, Hazen was mustered out of the Army at Los Pinos, New Mexico on August 31, 1864, after the completion of his three year term of service. The $315.00 saved from his private's pay due him when he mustered out indicates Hazen was a man of conservative habits compared to most Civil War soldiers. After mustering out Hazen returned to his New Castle, Pennsylvania home apparently feeling it offered him a better future than California could. California veteran association records indicate half of the California Volunteers felt as Hazen did, and went to the east after the war rather than returning to California.3
Hazen spent the remainder of his life as a New Castle farmer. He married Margaret E. Mitchell on July 18, 1874, and they had two children: Anna, born October 22, 1878, and Oliver W., born May 9, 1880. Hazen and his family were well known and quite active in the New Castle region.
Hazen became a member of the California Volunteer Veteran Association, an affiliate of the Grand Army of the Republic. He took great pride in having served under Brigadier General Christopher "Kit" Carson in New Mexico when Company E was part of the garrison there. He undoubtedly saw Carson, and apparently met him.
Hazen died suddenly of pneumonia and complications at age 69 on New Years Day, January 1, 1908. Hazen's stature in his community is reflected by the lengthy obituaries which were published in the New Castle News and New Castle Herald. After services at his home, Eli W. Hazen was buried in Greenwood Cemetery, New Castle.
In addition to his diary one other relic of Hazen's Civil War service survives -- his rifle. The Hazen family still has the U.S. Army caliber .58 "Springfield" Rifle, Model 1855 issued to him during the war.
Although neither part of Hazen's Diary is signed, it is in his identified handwriting. The diary is apparently Hazen's transcription of other documents which have not survived, and is accurate in every point checked. The march mileages Hazen recorded are slightly incorrect, undoubtedly on account of the way they were estimated at the time Company E made its eighteen hundred miles of hikes. The following is an exact transcription of Hazen's Diary in his format, words, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, or lack thereof, with only the place names in parentheses added.4
LIST OF MARCHES MADE BY CO. E 1ST INF'T, CAL. VOL.
by Eli W. Hazen
by Eli W. Hazen
(San Francisco, California)
|Prisidio & back||2||--||Co E 1st Cal
Vols sworn in today.
|Aug 27||Prisidio House||Camp Downey||4||4||A beautiful camp laid out by Maj. Pollock.|
|Sept 16||Camp Downey||San Francisco||2||8||Embarked on board the steamer Philbrick.|
|Sept 17||San Francisco||------||--||--||------|
|Sept 18||-----||San Pedro||--||--||See Note No. 1.|
|Sept 19||------||------||--||--||This morning we landed at San Pedro.|
|Sept 20||Camp near San Pedro||Camp Alkili||8||16||Water bad wood scarce country quite barren.|
|Sept 21||Camp Alkili||Las Sanilla||11||27||A fine stream of water wood in abundence.|
|Sept 24||Las Sanilla||Camp Latham||1||28||A fine camp distant 8 miles west of Los Angeles.|
|Oct 16||Camp Latham||Sterns Ranch||23||51||This was our first march of any size and a hard one.|
|Oct 17||Sterns Ranch||Reeds Ranch||20||71||Plenty of wood and water.|
|Oct 18||Reeds Ranch||Rains(?) Ranch||20||91||Passed a number of vineyards the last two days.|
|Oct 19||Rains(?) Ranch||P.M. Station||19||110||Plenty wood and water.|
|Oct 20||P.M. Station||Lagoon Grande||14||124||Wood and water somewhat scarce.|
|Oct 21||Lagoon Grande||Temescula (Temecula)||22||146||Indian reservation for the San Luis del Rey Indians.|
|Oct 22||Temescula||Dutchmans||14||160||A hard old road to travel on.|
|Oct 23||Dutchmans||Camp Wright||25||185||A bleak barren valley warm sulfer Springs 3 miles west of camp.|
|Oct 28||Camp Wright||San Isabella||12||197||Plenty wood and water.|
|Oct 29||San Isabella||San (Santa) Maria||18||215||------|
|Oct 30||San Maria||Panesquito||20||235||------|
|Oct 31||Panesquito||San Diego Barracks||25||260||See Note No. 2.|
|San Diego Barracks||Sheep Ranch||12||272||Crossed the San Gabriel River in wagons sent from Barracks.|
|March 15||Sheep Ranch||Manapers(?) Ranch||16||288||See Note No. 3.|
|March 16||Manapurs(?) Ranch||Couts Ranch||21||309||Passed the Mission San Luis del Rey it is nearly a century old and contains 1000 rooms.|
|March 17||Couts Ranch||Clover Camp||16||325||See Note No. 4.|
|March 18||Clover Camp||Temescula Hill (Temecula)||18||343||Wood plenty water scarce.|
|March 19||Temescula Hill (Temecula)||Camp Wright||25||368||See Note No. 5.|
|April 14||Camp Wright||Warners Ranch||18||386||Since leaving here last fall
our route has been in
the form of a triangle.
|April 15||Warners Ranch||San Felipi
|15||401||Plenty of wood and water.|
|April 16||San Felipe||Viacito
|13||414||We came by the trail 18 miles by road.|
|18||432||These two marches were made by Co. E without sleep the first 18 miles were made on the morning of the 17th we started again that evening and went through to Indian Wells.|
|April 19||Indian Wells||Almo
|April 21||Salt Wells||Pilot Knob||24||535||For the last 100 miles we have been crossing the Yuma Desert.|
|April 22||Pilot Knob||Fort Yuma
|10||545||See Note No. 6.|
|May 9||Fort Yuma
|18||563||Evidence of mining at this place.|
|May 10||Gila City||Camp Fillabuster
|32||595||Part of this march was made on the wrong road.|
|May 12||Fillabuster Camp
|6||601||On the banks of the Gila plenty of wood and water.|
|May 18||Antilope Peak||Mohawk||12||613||------|
|May 20||Mohawk||Texas Hill||11||624||------|
|May 21||Texas Hill||Grapy Camp
|23||647||Knicknamed Rattlesnake Camp on account of there being such a number of these snakes killed here daily.|
|May 26||Grapy Camp
|Oatman Flat||18||665||Saw the graves of the Oatman family who were murdered by the Tonto Apaches in 1851|
|May 27||Oatman Flat||Kinyons
|14||679||Along the Gila plenty wood and water.|
|May 29||Gila Bend||Desert Station||20||715||These two marchs were made in one there being no water at Desert Station we left Gila Bend on the afternoon of the 29th and marched all night and the next forenoon till we arrived at Maricopa Wells.|
|May 30||Desert Station||Maricopa Wells||20||735|
|May 31||Maricopa Wells||Pima Village||10||745||The Maricopas and Pimas are two of the finest tribes of Indians I have ever seen the Women are strictly virtious and their lands are well cultivated.|
|June 2||Pima Village||Pima Station
|June 23||Pima Station||Blue Water||23||780||See Note No. 7.|
|June 24||Blue Water||Point of Mountains
(Point of Mountain)
|40||820||There is evidence of a large
city having once stood here.
|June 26||Point of Mountains||Tuscon||17||837||See Note No. 8.|
|30||867||Plenty wood and water.|
|San Pedro||25||892||A fine little stream empties into the Gila.|
|July 13||San Pedro||Dragoon Springs||21||913||Several graves here evidences of Indian outrages.|
|July 14||Dragoon Springs||------||--||--||------|
|July 15||------||Apache Pass||40||953||See Note No. 9.|
|July 17||Apache Pass||San Cimone
|18||971||See Note No. 10.|
|July 28||San Cimone
|15||986||Lay over here a day to recruit our animals.|
|July 30||Cinega del
|25||1011||Small spring of water unfit to drink.|
|Water in Rocks||35||1046||Rain water loged in recesses in
the rocks or we should have
to go 9 miles further.
|Aug l||Water in Rocks||Cow Springs||9||1056||Good Adobie house roof burnt off water good no wood.|
|Aug 2||Cow Springs||Membris Lion||18||1073||See Note No. 11.|
|Aug 6||Membris Lion||Cooks Springs||18||1091||Water good no wood.|
|Aug 7||Cooks Springs||1st Camp
|36||1127||See Note No. 12.|
|Aug 8||1st Camp
|10||1137||See Note No. 13.|
|Aug 9||2nd Camp
|8||1145||See Note No. 14.|
|Aug 10||3rd Camp
|Las Cruces||28||1173||Two men hung here for being Union men by Sibleys Brigade.|
|Aug 11||Las Cruces||Fort Fillmore||6||1179||See Note No. 15.|
|Aug 30||Fort Fillmore||Cottonwoods
|19||1198||On bank of the Rio Grande plenty of wood and water.|
|25||1223||See Note No. 16.|
|15||1238||Plenty of wood and water.|
|Oct 14||1st Camp||2nd Camp||25||1263||------|
|Oct 15||2nd Camp||La Massalla
|10||1273||See Note No. 17.|
|Nov 6||La Massalla
|1st Camp||10||1283||Plenty of wood and water.|
|Nov 7||1st Camp
|Nov 8||2nd Camp||Franklin||15||1323||See Note No. 18.|
|Nov 16||Franklin||Dry Camp||12||1335||We start out today on an Indian hunt with fourty days rations.|
|Nov 17||Dry Camp||Yucco Tanks
|18||1353||Pronounced ("Wako Tanks") wood and water plenty.|
|Nov 18||Yucco Tanks
|Alamo||27||1380||Water good but long way from camp wood scarce.|
|Nov 19||Alamo||Point of Rocks||10||1390||Water in cave but difficult to access wood scarce.|
|Nov 20||Point of Rocks||Crow Springs||33||1423||Water more or less sulphery no wood.|
|Nov 21||Crow Springs||Sacramento
|24||1449||Good water wood very scarce.|
(Ojo del Martin?)
|10||1456||See Note No. 19.|
|Nov 25||Martin Springs||1st Camp||10||1466||Plenty wood and water.|
|Nov 26||1st Camp||2nd Camp||8||1474||------|
|Nov 27||2nd Camp||3rd Camp||12||1484||West several miles up a terrific old canon (canyon).|
|Nov 28||3rd Camp||Martin Springs||15||1501||------|
|Dec 3||Martin Springs||Crow Springs||33||1534||------|
|Dec 5||Crow Springs||Camp in Mountains||17||1551||This night a total eclipse of the moon took place.|
|Dec 6||Camp in Mountains||Crow Springs||17||1568||------|
|Dec 7||Crow Springs||Martina Springs||23||1591||This march was made by the Indian trail.|
|Dec 26||Martens Springs||Crow Springs||23||1614||------|
|Dec 27||Crow Springs||Point of Rocks||33||1647||------|
|Dec 28||Point of Rocks||Alamo||10||1657||------|
|Dec 29||Alamo||Yucco Tanks
|Dec 30||Yucco Tanks||Dry Camp||14||1698||------|
|Dec 31||Dry Camp||Franklin||16||1714||------|
|Jan 4||Cottonwoods||La Messalla
|Jan 7||La Messalla||1st Camp||8||1772||------|
|Jan 8||1st Camp||2nd Camp||7||1779||The Navajos attacked a train at this place that was traveling with an escourt and captured a good deal of clothing that was intended
for the troops.
|Jan 9||2nd Camp||Point of Rocks||30||1809||------|
|Jan 10||Point of Rocks||Alaman||16||1825||------|
|Jan 11||Alaman||Dry Camp||22||1847||See Note No. 20.|
|Jan 12||Dry Camp||Fort Craig
|34||1881||See Note No. 21.|
NOTES OF MARCHES MADE BY CO. E, 1ST IN FT. C.V.
by Eli W. Hazen
by Eli W. Hazen
No. 1 (San Francisco to San Pedro) As this distance was made by steamer it is not included in our marches but may properly be added to it when summing up our whole distance.
No. 2 (San Diego Barracks) This is a most healthy post but a very expensive one to government it is a two story building sufficiently large to quarter two companies with suitable out buildings it is situated on the north bank of San Diego Bay about three miles from Old San Diego from which all the water used at the barracks has to be hauled in a wagon drawn by government mules, wood used is hauled a distance varrying from fifteen to fourty miles at great expense. As a means of defense it is utterly usless and should be abandoned our company lay here four months and a half we passed the time very pleasantly hunting fishing and going out to the Bar for Clams.
No. 3 (Manapurs Ranch?) Today we crossed the San Maria (Santa Maria) River which was much swolen by recent rains. all hands from Capt down to high privates in rear rank stripped to the skin and with an inch and a half line thirty fathoms (180 feet) long bent on to the tounge of a wagon we started out ahead of the wagons and at a given signal from the Captain who was in the lead we gave a yell and started on the run with a wagon in the river. some of the boys would be swimming while others would be wading knee deep in mud, in this manner we hauled all the wagons across the water was rather cold and the day was not over and above favorable, but our Company is composed of young men who think that any novelty even to hauling a wagon through cold river water the greatest fun alive. although it was quite an amusing sight to see Eighty noisy naked men hauling a wagon through.
No. 4 (Clover Camp) This day we crossed the San Louis del Rey (San Luis Rey) river in the same manner we crossed the San Maria. (Santa Maria)
No. 5 (Camp Wright) This camp is beautifully situated in San Diego County, Cal. it is rather a high elevation for when we were thare in the early part of April it was several times visited with snow and to a depth of several inches the mountains which hemmed it in on every side were continously covered with snow all the time we were thare. we left our tents at this place, hence forth when Night overtakes us, we will Bivouac like true soldiers we packed our knapsacks the first three days after leaving here, god save us from doing the likes again.
No. 6 (Fort Yuma) This military post is situated on the west bank of the Colorado River about one hundred miles above its mouth it is on a hill and has a commanding position, it was much strenghtened by work done by our volunteers last winter.
No. 7 (Blue Water, Arizona) Fifteen miles beyond Blue Water at a Pass in the Mountains named "Pico Cho" (Pichaco Pass) our cavalry pickets had a skirmish with Secesh Pickets several of whom were taken prisoners, we lost in killed one Lt. (Lt. James I. Barrett, Co. A, Cal. Vols.) and two privates Rebel loss not known. As our advance neared Tuscon the Rebels retreated to the Rio Grande and when we reached the latter place they skidadled into Texas, Our Cavalry persued them for several hundred miles, but they had to much the start of us.
No. 8 (Tucson) Tuscon is quite a town in size it has been for years past the rendeyvous of murderous horse thieves and other fugatives from justice from the Pacific coast and Texas. The Bowie knife and revolver were the only laws recognized in this part of Arizona. gambling was the principal business carried on here and Hoyles authority on this subject was even trampled under foot, for tis said that in thare little game of Draw Poker four Kings and a revolver when held by ans Assissin would beat four Aces and 2 Bowie Knifes when held by a less desperate cuss. The Graveyard when we were thare contined somewhere near one hundred graves but three of that number died natural deaths, the rest were victims of crime and violence. Tuscon was but little worse than parts of California. The notorious Ned McGowan was not far from the truth when he said of Arizona That every bush had a thorn, every toad a horn, and every woman was a whore and every man was a lying Gambling horse thief, Thare is a nice little mill here which we confiscated for government use and set it a running working flour to feed us soldiers, also a prety little stream that supplies the town and mill with water where we boys had heaps of fun diving in a bathing while here we were put on half rations.
No. 9 (Apache Pass) Just before sundown July 14th 1862 Company E 1st Infantry and six Cavalry men of B Co 2nd Cavalry Cal. Vols. and two mountain Howitzers drawn by mules and commanded by Lt. W A Thompson, the whole under command of Capt. T. L. Roberts E Co. 1st Infantry Cal Vols left Dragoon Springs and marched all night and the next day till 12 Oclock whare we arrived at Apache Pass a distance of fourty miles. During the night we crossed an alkili flat where the water and mud was about six inches deep it was about a mile wide, but that night it seemed nearer ten miles, it was awful work getting through with the weapons, the mules could hardly haul them, just as the company halted and broke ranks at the station in the Pass our ears were greeted with a volley of musketry accompanied by the war whoop of the Apache Indians who had attacked our train which was but a little ways behind the company coming on its way in the 1st volley the Indians killed one of our guard and wounded the hospital steward and one teamster, the Indians kept up a brisk fire on the train, but without doing any damage except the Perforation of the wagon bodies and tops with bullets, the company rushed back to the train and after getting it in to the station went to work at the Indians with a will we skirmished the Pass and drove them out while Lt. Thompson with his "Jack Ass Battery" (our boys called it) shelled them from the sides of the mountains, and after whipping them at this point we returned to the station, we were now foot sore and weary with a good Appitite and no water the Spring being about three quarters of a mile from the station up a narrow ravine surrounded on all sides by young mountains, we expected trouble before we could get to the spring and the 1st. Platoon was therefore deployed as skirmishers and started towards the Spring. the Indians opened a brisk fire from their hiding places when we had got within a few yards of the water, we returned their fire and drove them from the Spring in doing which we lost an other man, the Indians on withdrawing from the Spring went up the mountains on each side and kept up an occasional fire upon the Springs which would have rendered the watering of our Animals rather a hazerdous enterprize. The Bugle sounded retreat and we withdrew from the Spring Assembled the Skirmishers and reformed the Company which was deployed one Platoon to the right and the other to the left for the purpose of climbing the mountains. here again our little Battery was of essencial service for with it they drove the Indians from the edge of the Mountains while our boys climbed its rugged sides and gained an equal footing with thare red skin foes. After which we made short work of them. after procuring what water we wanted we withdrew from the hills and returned to the station, it was now after sundown and after drinking a cup of coffee Capt Roberts called for Volunteers to go back towards Dragoon Springs and meet the train that was coming with a small escourt of Cavalry and escourt it in, nearly half of the company responded to the call and with these Capt R Started back leaving the balance to guard the Station while we engaged with the Indians at the Spring, Capt Roberts sent the Cavalry men back to inform the train, and to tell them that he would meet them that night with an escourt, on our way back to meet the train that night we passed one of the Cavalry mens horses which was badly wounded and lying helpless by the road side, we began to fear that they had been cut off by the Indians and probably the train attacked if not captured the night was exceedingly dark and we were unable to see any tracks in the road that might have led us to form some idea of the strenght of the Indians One thing however we were certain of and that was, that the Indians were between us and the train, and we hurried forward as fast as our weary limbs could carry us. it was twelve Oclock that night when we reached the train and found it parked by the road side, a distance of fifteen miles from the Pass. They expected an attack and made preparation accordingly, we now had the satisfaction of learning that the Cavalry men had reached the train while on their way back they had been fired upon by the Indians and one of their number was wounded in the arm very severly two of their horses had been shot, one of them dropped down a few yards from where he was shot, the other carried his rider to camp and dropped down dead before they could unsaddle him, The Cavalry man whose horse gave out on the road had a narrow escape for the Indians immediately surrounded him but were afraid to close in upon him as long as he retained his carbine and Pistol they popped away at him from a distance without being able to hit him, he hung his blouse and hat on a bush to draw their fire and then crawled off a little ways. And had the satisfaction of hearing them blaze away at the decoy when the night grew darker he managed to effect his escape and reached the train about half an hour before we did as they did not intend to Start the train till daylight we of the Infantry escort threw ourselves under the wagons in order to snatch a few hours rest and sleep. At Six A. M. we were called up and immediately got under weigh for the Pass. where we arrived at noon, we now refreshed ourselves with a good square meal the 1st we had received Since leaving Dragoon Springs, fourty miles from Dragoon Springs to Apache Pass along which route thare is no water that a person can drink six hours skirmish with the Indians fifteen miles back to meet the train six hours sleep on the ground without any blankets, fifteen miles back to the Pass All this without grub and the greater portion of the way without water is prety good work for the Volunteers our whole time from when we left Dragoon Springs till we arrived the second time with the train in Apache Pass was fourty three hours.
No. 10 (San Simone, Arizona) Our orders was to establish a depot at this place and to send the train back to Tucson. we entrenched ourselves to guard against a sudden attack from the Indians, a detachment of our company went back with the train as far as San Pedro River.
No. 11 (Mimbris Lion) Thare was quite a little town at this place once it was called Mowrys City the Indians cleand the inhabitants out and destroyed the place.
No. 12 (1st Camp Rio Grande) It was midnight when we reached the Rio Grande and although we were tired the sight of water that emptied into the Gulf was glorious and refreshing thing for us poor worn travilliers after our dreary and monotonus march from the far off shores of the Pacific.
No. 13 (2nd Camp Rio Grande) To day we passed Father Thom (?) and stopped a few minutes to examine the crumbling ruins the walls were defaced with Texians traitors names and Texican Braggodocia but nary a Texican thare to answer to his name or make good his writing on the wall.
No. 14 (3rd Camp Rio Grande) We crossed the Rio Grande to day with the aid of two old scows which carried our stores across the Mules were unharnessed and swam across. the wagons were hauled by the soldiers who stripped to the skin and with a long line suceeded in crossing them safe in little over half a day.
No. 15 (Fort Fillmore) This is the Post that Maj Lyndis (?) So treacherously betrayed it was occupied by our troops for a while and has since been condemmed and tore down.
No. 16 (Franklin, Texas) The Rebels were occupying this place and Fort Fillmore when our advanced guard and Cavalry first reached the Rio Grande they got up and left in such a hurry that they left all their sick behind at Franklin who were agreably surprized at the treatment they received at our hands, for they were laboring under the false impression which their leaders had imbued them with, that the California troops were but little better than Cannibals who would torture if not eat their Prisoners our good treatment so won upon them that some of them wept at parting, and swore they would never bear arms against us again, we promised to pay them a visit at San Antonia ere this and if the rank and file had their say so in this matter, they would have made that promise good, the Rebel sick were shortly after our arrival sent back to San Antonia under an escort of Cavalry Co. (?) Lt French Commanding.
No. 17 (La Massalla/Messilla) This is the second town in size in Arizonia it is built of Adobes and like all the other towns in this part of the country, is half dead and alive sort of a place.
No. 18 (Franklin, Texas) This was previous to the war a flourishing little town it is situated on the East bank of the Rio Grande opposite El Passo Mexico and about twenty five miles from the boundary line between Texas and New Mexico we had the best quarters while here we had since we were sworn in.
No. 19 (Marten Springs) This spring is situated on the east side of the Guadalaupe mountains one hundred and thirty miles east of Franklin, thare is a good stone house and log corral built here by Capt. nay Maj Gen John Pope while on a surveying expitition in this part of the country. we used the building for a Depot from which we would start out with five and six days grub and our blankets on Pack Mules and scouts for Indians. There is plenty of wood and water at this place but the route between here and Franklin is entirely destitute of both The Gaudalope Mountains Abound in wild game of all kinds, and we boys had some rare sport hunting we were out fourty six days Indian hunting.
No. 20 (Dry Camp) Since leaving the second camp out from La Messalla we have been crossing the great Journada (or "dead mans journey") it is ninety miles across it by roads and certain seasons of the year there is no water on it thare was but three places that contained water when we crossed in midwinter when thare is the greatest suply it is almost a perfect level all the way, and thare is not a stick of timber on it unless you can call Sage Brush or muscal Plant Timber. This Journada is a great place for Indians to lay in wait for Persons crossing it so they can attack and rob them. They are very troublesome and it is a very dangerous old place to cross unless you are with a party and well armed.
No. 21 (Fort Craig, New Mexico) This military post is beautifully situated on the west bank of the Rio Grande river About one hundred seventeen miles from Massalla The Volunteers have been to work ever since they first arrived, and some two hundred Mexicans have lately been det (detailed?) to work on the new Fortifications, which were planned and laid out, and are now rapidly progressing towards completion, under supervision of Capt Anderson 5th Infantry U.S. Army. The battle of Val Verdis was fought within sight of the fort on the twenty first day of February 1862, The Union troops were victorious, This Fort in a strategical point, is the key to New Mexico.
Primary thanks are due Mr. George T. Richards, Hazen's great grandson who handled the correspondence for his family, and Mrs. M. B. Klinesmith who supplied the copy of the diary and transmitted much valuable information through Mr. Richards. Mr. Bart Richards, Hazen's grandson, supplied information including that concerning Hazen's rifle. Members of the Hazen family read and constructivly commented on the draft of this work, and the permission to publish Hazen's Diary was given by his son Mr. Oliver W. Hazen.
I also wish to thank Mr. William F. Heneghan who brought to my attention the fact that Hazen's Diary existed, and put me in touch with the Hazen family.
Thanks also go to Ms. Elizabeth Milholland of the New Castle Public Library for information furnished, and to the Military Service Records Division of the National Archives and Records Service for the Hazen Military and Pension records. Lastly I wish to thank Dr. Harry Kelsey and Mr. Donald Chaput of the History Division of the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History for their advice, support, and encouragement.
NOTES TO INTRODUCTION
1. This and subsequent biographical and family history were supplied by Hazen's granddaughter Mrs. M. B. Klinesmith via correspondence with Hazen's great grandson Mr. George T. Richards.
2. Hazen, Eli W., Military File, Military Service Records Division, National Archives and Records Service and Richard H. Orton, Records of California Men In The War Of The Rebellion used for Hazen's and Company E's military service details.
3. Extracted from Anon., California Volunteer Veterans Association 1904-1907, a roster.
4. Geographical information in parentheses added at critical places such as state lines and to clarify some place names.
Anon., California Volunteer Veteran Association, 1904-1907, a roster, n.p., n.d.
Barnes, Will C., Arizona Place Names, Tucson: University of Arizona, 1935. General Bulletin No. 7.
Hanna, Phil Townsend, The Dictionary of California Land Names, Los Angeles: Automobile Club of Southern California, 1946.
Orton, Richard H., Records Of California Men In The War Of The Rebellion, 1861 To 1867, Sacramento: State Printing Office, 1890.
Konrad F. Schreier, Jr. is a military and technological historian and consultant, an author, and a lecturer. After serving in World War II he completed his education, and from 1951 to 1967 he was a research and development engineer in industry. Always interested in military and technological history, he then left the engineering profession to work full time in the history field. His credits include numerous popular magazine articles, several books on special aspects of U.S. Military History and motion picture and TV work including being resident historian on 20th Century Fox's film TORA! TORA! TORA! He is a Research Associate in Military History on the staff of the History Division of the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History. Schreier's article entitled "A Study of the Location of Mule Hill: General Kearny's Camp After the Battle of San Pasqual" was published in this Journal in the Spring, 1975 issue.
Illustrations associated with this article are provided by the author and the Historical Collections, Title Insurance and Trust Co., San Diego.