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"San Diego...Where California Began"
Page 21. A drawing of the Mission as it looked about 1848.
Page 21. Photograph of an outdoor miniature representation of the Mission as it appeared in 1820.
Page 21. Drawing of the Mission in 1883.
Page 22. Mrs. Henry D. Fitch, who in her maidenhood was Josefa Carrillo, a local belle who was much admired by Gov. Echeandía.
Page 23. California method of killing cattle for hides and tallow. This sight was common at the missions and ranchos during the heyday of the hide trade.
Page 24. Bull and bear fights were a popular form of entertainment during San Diego's days of free-wheeling opulence. Copy of original wood engravine reproduced in Spanish Arcadia, by Nellie Van de Grift Sánchez, of the series "California," Powell Publishing Co., Los Angeles, 1928.
Page 24. Jedediah Smith, the "Bible Toter," was the first American to come to San Diego via the desert route.
Page 25. Abel Stearns, one of the landowners who suffered under the autocratic policies of Gov. Victoria. Along with Juan Bandini, Pío Pico and José Carrillo, Stearns "captured" the Presidio of San Diego on November 29, 1831 as the first action in a revolt to get rid of Victoria.
Page 26. Juan Bandini [left]and Pío Pico conspired with exiled landowners Abel Stearns and José Carrillo to organize a revolt against the high-handed policies of Gov. Manuel Victoria in 1830. Pico later became Governor, the last to hold this office under Mexican rule.
Page 27. Juan B. Alvarado became Governor in 1836, ten years before the Americans took control. He served a full term, one of few Mexican governors of Alta California to do so. He was succeeded by Pío Pico.
Page 28. Santiago Arguéllo, who with Juan Bandini organized a revolution to attempt to overthrow Gov. Alvarado. Like many such adventures during the Mexican Period, the revolution was absorbed into larger events with aspects of a comic opera.
Page 28. Gen. Don José Castro commanded most of the military actions in which Alvarado's shaky government was constantly becoming involved.
Page 29. Manuel Micheltorena, who succeeded Alvarado as Governor in 1842, was himself driven out of office by Alvarado and Pío Pico. Pico then became Governor, but the Mexican Period of California was in eclipse.
Page 30. Andrés Pico and his brother, Pío, were the original grantees of the fabulous Rancho Santa Margarita.
Page 30. Maj. John C. Fremont commanded the American troops sent to California in 1846 "to survey and ...not to fight." His troops assisted in the formation of the Bear Flag Republic.
Page 31. Captain Samuel Dupont, skipper of the Cyane, brought the first battalion of American troops info San Diego, on July 30, 1846.
Page 32. Log of the USS Cyane for July 30, 1846. The first entry reads:
"Commencing with moderate breezes from the W and pleasant. At three the launch and alligator under command of Lt. Rowan armed and equipped (sic) and the Marine Guard under the command of Lt. left the ship to take possession of the town and hoist the American flag."
The third entry reads:
"From 8 to midnight light airs from the W and pleasant at 9 the launch returned and at 10:50 the alligator with Lt. Rowan returned after taking possession of San Diego and hoisting the American flag leaving all our Marine Guard under the command of Lt. Maddox on shore to defend the Flag and town.
Page 33. Commodore Robert Stockton, commander of American forces on the coast, strengthened the U.S. hold on San Diego. He gave his name to the hilltop earthworks above the old Spanish Presidio.
Page 33. Miguel de Pedrorena, who with Santiago Arguéllo was sympathetic to the idea of American domination, has been called "the first San Diego patriot." He was one of the earliest and most enthusiastic promoters of "New San Diego."
Page 34. Col. Stephen Watts Kearny made the fateful decision which led to the American disaster in the Battle of San Pasqual.
Page 35. "Partial list of Californians Under Gen. André's Pico at San Pasqual"
Page 35. Twelve-pound bronze mountain howitzer of the type used by Kearny in 1846. Photo from U.S. Ordnance.
Page 36. Actions of the Battle of San Pascual, Dec. 6 and 7, 1846. Copied from Notes of a Military Reconnaisance, by Lt. Col. W.H. Emory, pub. U.S. Senate, Dec. 16, 1847.
Page 37. The "Sutter gun" was Kearny's only piece of artillery in working order in the Battle of San Pasqual. Note the carrying handles. Gun was 40" long with a 3-1/2" bore. It took a charge of 8 ounces of powder. Sketch by Charles S. Greene in The Overland Monthly, July, 1893.
Page 38. Last page of Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, which ended the war between Mexico and the U.S., on February 2, 1848.
Page 39. Mule Hill, site of the last, desperate stand of the Kearny forces before relief arrived. Many San Diegans and tourists visit this site each year. Its location is at the North end of Lake Hodges.
Page 40. Lt. Edward Beale, who, with Kit Carson, brought word of the San Pasqual disaster to Commodore Stockton. In this photo, made two years later, he is disguised as a Mexican, while carrying word of the California gold discoveries to the U.S. Congress.